The Eye. copyright Giulio Porta. All rights reserved.


9 points before welding

The 8 CPs loop for the outer eyelid edge, after welding.














In a broad sense there are two types of eyes that can be built: 
  • One with the eyelids forming a hole,  an eye ball will be fitted and set to rotated inside, simulating the anatomy of a real eye for realism and animation.
  • The other made all of one piece, with the visible part of the eyeball sealed patched to the eyelid. The bitmap of the face including the eye will be mapped onto it.

You must have the Rotoscopes in place before beginning.

Zoom into the front view of the eye. The Zoom tool (Z) is the lens shaped icon in between the hand ( Move tool ) and the Turn tool. 

Or you could, with the Zoom tool selected, R + click around the area you need to Zoom into.

Select the Ad Lock Mode tool and trace around the outer shape of the eye with a total of nine control points, R+ click to exit the Ad Lock Mode tool.

Grab the ninth point and place it on top of the first one, R + click to close the loop. You should have an eight CPs (control points) loop.

The eye shape needs to be grouped to be extruded into the third dimension. There are 3 methods of grouping points:

  • Group the looped splines that make up the shape of the eye, by dragging a marquee around them. The marquee is dragged by stating from a corner of an imaginary box bounding the selection you need to make. Make sure to Deselect (Esc) everything before you start with this mouse action.
  • You can select one control point that belongs to a looped spline and hit the Comma key on your key board the entire loop will be selected.
  • Hold down the Shift key and select one by one all the control points that needs to be grouped.
  • Once a selection is make you can inverted by selecting everything else that was not selected, use the . (period key)

Select the loop you just made and Extrude it by clicking on the Extrude Mode tool (letter key E on your key board).

The amount of extrusion can be set from Tools > Options > Units > Paste/Extrude offset. Basically Extrusion will copy and paste CPs and Splines and push them out of a small amount. But the software does not know what you are up to, therefore it will be up to you to drag the extruded edges to the right place.

The Extrude geometry will be bounded by a yellow manipulation box (this is typical of selections), click and hold on a corner of the box, as you hold down the Shift key, and drag the selection out ward.

Next click on individual control points and drag them to conform to the edge where the eyelid folds into the eye socket, that edge is marked by a dark line, a fold, in the lower portion drag the CPs below the lid to create a transition toward the bottom of the eye socket.

In the right side view, # 4 on your numeric key pad, move the points that you have just extruded back to conform to the shape of the eyelid.

I am changing the color of the wire frame as I go along, for better visibility of these screen capture. Please do not mind that.

Reselect the inner edge of the eyelid and extrude it, scale down of a small amount. 

This inward step should corresponds aproximately to the thickness of the eyelid's skin.

Use the Turn tool (T) to see in 3D what is taking place during extrusion.
Switch to the top view, to notice the curvature of the eyelid does not conform to that of a circle. 

That simply means that once the eyeball will be introduce some of the eyelid CPs will penetrate the eyeball.

We need to adjust most of the eyelid's CPs to conform to the shape of a sphere.

To make a sphere to be used as an eyeball, please refer to these tutorials:

Making an eyeball like a pro

The eye with more details

Glass Eye

A simple eye

The only variation here is that I used under Tools > Options > Modeling > Lathing Cross sections I set that number to 16. I have also rotated the eyeball so its north pole will lay horizontally.

You can see here to your right that the eyelid does not conform to the curvature of the eyeball, but because there are too many CPs overlapping we need to lock out what does not come into play in this operation.

Let's lock out the eyeball first, select one CP on the eyelid and the / key, that will select the entire eyelid, click on the Lock CPs icon, the icon representing a padlock. The sphere will change color as it was grayed out.

Select only the CPs belonging to the eyelid edge, and click on the Lock CPs again, that will unlock everything, click on the Lock CPs for a second time, now you should have just the double edge of the eyelid selected.
To adjust these points so they will not penetrate the eyeball you will need to use several views as well as the Shaded and Wireframe mode, 0 key.
Check the side view that no eyball penetration will take place.
Use the Turn tool (T) to inspect the model by rotating it to see if any control points belonging to the eyelid penetrates the eyeball. If so, move the points accordingly.




Select the eyelid outer edge and extrude it one more time to the edge of the eye socket, you should be able to recognized it because it is market at the top by the bottom of the eye brow, the upper edge of the orbit, and at the bottom by the edge of the orbit. From left to right you should also be able to see references to the edges of the orbit.
Adjust the CPs from the side view to something similar to this.