NAS 162  Final                                                            Name ________________________

Vander Maten

Questions 1-50 are worth two points each.  Questions 51-100 are worth one point each.


1.  Neurons that carry messages  from the peripheral areas to the brain are

     a)  motor                 b)  Schwann                 c)  sensory                    d)  interneurons


2.  During the impulse across a neuron

     a)  sodium moves into the cell                       b)  sodium moves out of the cell

     c)  calcium moves into the cell                      d)  calcium moves out of the cell


3.  At the synapse, the impulse is passed

     a)  electrically          b)  chemically               c)  mechanically            d)  photochemically


4.  At the synapse, neurotransmitters move from the knobs of the ____________ to the receptor of the _____________ .

     a)  axon, axon          b) axon, dendrite          c)  dendrite, axon          d)  dendrite, dendrite


5.  All of these are ways for a drug or poison to act on nerves except

     a)  bind to receptor                                      b)  stop breakdown of neurotransmmitter

     c)  analog of neurotransmitter                       d)  destroy phospholipid bilayer


6.  Neuroglial cells are necessary for all of the following except

     a)  support                                                   b)  transmission of impulse

     c)  formation of myelin                                 d)  phagocytosis of debris


7.  When impulses jump from node to node, it is called

     a) the refractory period                                b)  a reflex arc

     c)  repolarization                                          d)  saltatory conduction


8.  Put these in order to describe transmission in a reflex:

     1.  motor neuron    2.  sensory neuron     3.  interneuron    4.  brain

     a)  4,2,1,3               b)  2,1,3,4                    c)  2,3,1                       d)  1,3,2


9.  Myelin sheath is made by

     a)  Schwann cells     b)  motor neurons         c)  sensory neurons       d)  interneurons


10.  The myelin sheath is destroyed by forming hard scars in

     a)  polio                   b)  Tay-Sachs               c)  multiple sclerosis      d)  Alzheimer’s


11.  Larynx, speech, swallowing, portions of the chest and abdoomen are all controlled by

     a)  facial (VII)          b)   trigeminal (V)         c)  trochlear (IV)          d)  vagus (X)




12.  Eye muscles are controlled by cranial nerves

     a)  III, V, VII          b)  III, IV, VI               c)  VII, IX, XI              d)  II, IV, VII


13.  The cerebellum, pons, and medulla all rise from the embryonic

     a)  midbrain b)  topbrain                  c)  hindbrain                 d)  forebrain


14.  The hypothalamus and pituitary rise from the

     a)  midbrain b)  topbrain                  c)  hindbrain                 d)  forebrain


15.  The weblike middle meninges is the

     a) arachnoid mater   b)  pia mater                 c)  subarachnoid mater d)  dura mater


16.  The cerebral hemispheres are connected by the

     a) thalamus              b)  pons                        c)  pituitary                   d)  corpus callosum


17.  Cerebrospinal fluid is made by the

     a) arachnoid mater  b)  pia mater                  c)  subarachnoid mater  d)  dura mater


18.  Posture and involuntary movement are controlled by the

     a)  pons                   b)  cerebrum                 c)  medulla                    d)  cerebellum


19.  Vital centers are controlled by the

     a)  midbrain b)  thalamus                  c)  medulla                    d)  cerebelum


20.  Sympathetic nerve impulses cause all but the following:

     a)  eyes dilate          b)  heart slows              c)  digestion slows        d)  breathing speeds


21.  Older people often have poor diets because

     a)  taste buds are lost                                   b)  rods and cones are lost

     c)  smell receptors are lost                           d)  hearing loss


22.  Free nerve endings are found in which somatic senses?

     a)  touch and pressure                                  b)  touch and temperature

     c)  temperature and pain                              d)  pressure and pain


23.  Conductive deafness can be caused by all but the following:

     a)  loud sounds        b)  hardened eardrum   c)  immovable ossicle  d)  excess earwax


24.  Inflammation of the cornea is called

     a)  conjunctivitis       b)  tinnitus                     c)  neuritis                     d)  keratitis


25.  Dim vision is called                       

     a)  diplopia              b)  presbyopia              c)  amblyopia                d)  myopia



26.  Most cases of bacterial meningitis are caused by

     a)   Streptococcus pneumoniae                    b)  Hemophilus influenzae

     c)   Neisseria meningitidis                             d)  Listeria monocytogenes


27.    Polio is caused by a

     a)  fungus                 b)  bacteria                   c)  protozoan                d)  virus


28.  African sleeping sickness is caused by the

     a)  protozoan Trypanosoma             b)  fungus Cryptococcus

     c)  encephalitis virus                         d)  bacteria Clostridium tetani


29.  Clostridium bacteria are particularly dangerous because they are

     a)  aerobic and make endospores                 b)  anaerobic and make endospores

     c)  aerobic and grow at 5oC             d)  anaerobic and grow at 5oC


30.  Tightly packed capillary cells which have a myelin sheath lead to the

     a)  blood brain barrier                                  b)  slow development of rabies

     c)  trauma during a spinal tap                        d)  spastic paralysis in tetanus


31.  Excessive eating is called

     a)  aphasia               b)  neuralgia                  c)  hirsutism                  d)  polyphagia


32.  The target organ of ACTH is the

     a)  kidney                b)  thyroid                    c)  uterus                      d)  adrenal


33.  An example of a gonadotropin is

     a)  prolactin b)  estrogen                  c)  FSH                        d)  oxytocin


34.  Too much growth hormone after puberty causes

     a)  dwarfism            b)  cretinism                  c)  acromegaly              d)  gigantism


35.  Hyperthyroidism causes all but the following:

     a)  restlessness         b)  cold sensitivity         c)  weight loss               d)  protruding eyes


36.  The parathyroid raises blood levels of

     a)  calcium               b)  insulin                      c)  sodium                    d)  iodine


37.  Electrolytes are regulated by

     a)  glucagon b)  aldosterone             c)  calcitonin                 d)  cortisol


38.  Which hormone tells the body to store glucose as starch?

     a)  aldosterone         b)  glucagon                  c)  thyroxine                 d)  insulin


39.  Milk release is controlled by

     a)  prolactin b)  oxytocin                  c)  LH                          d)  thyroxine

40.  Pain due to inflammation of nerves is called

     a)  analgesia b)  neuritis                    c)  neuralgia                  d)  analgesic


41.  Gene shuffling occurs during

     a)  meiosis I prophase                                  b)  mitosis I prophase

     b)  meiosis II prophase                                d)  mitosis II prophase


42.  Lipids accumulate in the brains of young children in

     a)  phenylketonuria  b) porphyria                  c)  Tay-Sachs disease   d)   cystic fibrosis


43.  The genes for blood type (IA, IB) are an example of

     a)  incomplete dominance                             b)  codominance

     c)  polygeny                                     d)  a sex-linked gene


44.  A person with Turner syndrome has a chromosome count of

     a)  44                      b)  45                           c)  46                           d)  47


45.  Genes that are sex linked are almost always found on

     a)  chromosome 21                          b)  chromosome Y

     c)  chromosome 15                          d)  chromosome X


46.  Freckles are dominant.  A woman homozygous for freckles marries a man without freckles.  What are the chances that their child has freckles?

     a)  0                        b)  ¼                            c)  ½                            d)  1


47.  A colorblind man marries a heterozygous woman.  What are the chances that their child is a carrier?

     a)  0                        b)  ¼                            c)  ½                            d)  ¾


48.  A man with blood type A marries a woman and has a child with blood type O.  Some years later the wife dies.  The man remarries a woman with O type blood.  What are the chances a new baby has type A blood?

     a)  0                        b)  ¼                            c)  ½                            d)  1


49.  A young woman’s father does not have hemophilia, but the father’s brother does have the disease.  The mother’s family has no hemophilia.  What would you tell the young woman?

     a)  You are not a carrier.                              b)  You are probably a carrier.

     c)  You are definitely a carrier.                     d)  You will develop hemophila later in life.


50.  An example of a one-gene, autosomal problem is

     a)  sickle cell anemia  b)  Klinefelter c)  Down syndrome      d) colorblindness


51.  Which of the following is not found in normal urine?

     a)  glucose               b)  urea                        c)  water                       d)  bacteria

52.  Alveoli cells are

     a)  cuboidal             b)  squamous                c)  columnar                 d)  pseudostratified


53.  Increased production of urine is called

     a)  anuria                 b)  enuresis                   c)  dysuria                    d)  diuresis


54.  Lack of ADH leads to a disease called

     a)  pyelonephritis     b)  diabetes mellitus      c)  diabetes insipidus     d)  cystitis


55.  Collapse of lung is called

     a)  athsma                b)  ateclectasis              c)  pneumonia               d)  emphysema


56.  Fusion of alveoli is called

     a)  athsma                b)  ateclectasis              c)  pneumonia               d)  emphysema


57.  Each alveolus is surrounded by

     a)  myelin                 b)  afferent arterioles     c)  efferent arterioles     d)  capillaries


58.  In which diseases are there calcified lesions in the lung?

     a)  lung stones          b)  pneumonia               c)  tuberculosis d)  gout


59.  Most bladder infections are caused by

     a)  E. coli                 b)  Streptococcus         c)  Staphylococcus       d)  Mycobacterium


60.  The movement of substances from kidney tubules to the capillaries is called

     a)  secretion b)  reabsorption            c)  filtration                   d)  diffusion


61.  Glucose in the glomerulus next passes to the

     a)  efferent arteriole  b)  renal vein                c)  proximal con.t.         d)  B’s capsule


62.  A red blood cell in the glomerulus next passes to the

     a)  efferent arteriole   b)  renal vein   c)  proximal con. t.        d)  B’s capsule


63.  Most molecules of urea pass from the proximal convoluted tubule to the

     a)  peritubular capillaries                              b)  distal convoluted tubule

     c)  Henle’s loop                                           d)  renal vein


64.  Most molecules of glucose pass from the proximal convoluted tubule to the

     a)  peritubular capillaries                              b)  distal convoluted tubule

     c)  Henle’s loop                                           d)  renal vein


65.  Increased CO2 in the blood leads to 

     a)  uremia                                                    b)  hematuria

     c)  higher pH                                               d)  lower pH


66.  Carbon monoxide occupies the hemoglobin site for

     a)  oxygen               b)  carbon dioxide        c)  iron                         d)  urea


67.  Inflammation of nasal cavity linings is called

     a)  cystitis                b)  rhinitis                     c)  glossitis                    d)  pharyngitis


68.  Inflammation and accumulation of fluid in the lungs is called

     a)  enteritis               b)  cystic fibrosis           c)  emphysema             d)  pneumonia


69.  Excess sodium in the blood is

     a)  hyperkalemia      b)  hypokalemia            c)  hypernatremia          d) hyponatremia


70.  Blood from the aorta goes directly to the

     a)  facial                  b)  common carotid      c)  external carotid        d)  brachiocephalic


71.  Long sticky fibers in the blood come from

     a)  platelets              b)  fibrinogen                c)  albumin                    d)  white blood cells


72.  The condition of having bacteria in the blood is

     a)  septicemia          b)  thalassemia              c)  leukopenia               d)  polycythemia


73.  Bilirubin and biliverdin in the blood lead to

     a)  anemia                b)  jaundice                  c)  hyperchromia           d)  pancytopenia


74.  Enlargement of lymph nodes is called

     a)  lymphadenotomy  b)  lymphadenectomy  c)  lymphadenopathy  d)  lymphsarcoma


75.  Too few white blood cells is called

     a)  leukopenia          b)  polycythemia           c)  neutrophilia  d)  leukocytosis


76.  All of the following are noncellular components of the blood except

     a)  proteins              b)  gases                       c)  red blood cells         d)  electrolytes


77.  Blood in the heart passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle through the

     a)  aortic semilunar        b)  bicuspid             c)  tricuspid      d)  pulmonary semilunar


78.  Blood in the heart passes from the right ventricle to the

     a)  pulmonary artery  b)  pulmonary vein   c)  superior vena cave  d)  aorta


79.  The muscle part of the heart is the

     a)  myocardium        b)  endocardium  c)  visceral pericardium d)  parietal pericardium


80.  Inflammation of a vein is called

     a)  phlebitis              b)  varicose vein           c)  venography              d)  phlebotomy


81.  The condition of hardened, less elastic arteries is called     

      a)  angiospasm        b)  atherosclerosis         c)  aneurysm                 d)  arteriosclerosis


82.  Heart beat is initiated by the

     a)  A-V node           b)  A-V bundle c)  S-A node                d)  S-A bundle


83.  The white blood cell that contains histamine is the

     a)  neutrophil           b)  eosinophil                c)  basophil                   d)  lymphocyte


84.  A Y-shaped protein made in response to a foreign substance that can react with that foreign substance is

     a)  an antigen           b)  an antigen-presenting cell  c)  a phagocyte  d)  an antibody


85.  Vaccination is a form of

     a)  active natural immunity                            b)  passive natural immunity

     c)  active artificial immunity               d)  passive artificial immunity


86.  Antibodies are made by ______ cells in the  ______ lymphocyte family.

     a)  plasma, B           b)  plasma, T                c)  helper, B                 d)  helper, T


87.  Inflammation of colon pouches is

     a)  diverticulitis         b)  enteritis                   c)  dysentery                 d)  cholecystitis


88.  All of the following are accessory digestive glands except

     a)  liver                    b)  gall bladder             c)  salivary glands         d)  pancreas


89.  Indigestion is called

     a)  aphagia               b)  pholyphagia c)  anorexia                  d)  dyspepsia


90.  The site of mechanical breakdown and mixing with acid is the

     a)  stomach              b)  mouth                      c)  small intestine           d)  large intestine


91.  Villi are found in the

     a)  stomach              b)  esophagus               c)  small intestine           d)  large intestine


92.  The condition of stones in the gall bladder is called

     a)  gastrectomy        b)  cholelithiasis            c)  cachexia                  d)  cholecystitis


93.  Interstitial cells make

     a)  FSH                   b)  estrogen                  c)  testosterone d)  ICSH


94.  The hormone that maintains the lining of the uterus is

     a)   estrogen            b)  progesterone           c)  testosterone d)  HCG



95.  LH is released on about day _____ and causes _______.

     a)  14, menstruation  b)  28, menstruation     c)  14, ovulation           d)  14, ovulation


96.  Oophhorectomy is removal of the

     a)  uterus                 b)  ovary                      c)  Fallopian tube          d)  vagina


97.  The condition of having uterine tissue outside the uterus is called

     a)  endometriosis     b)  endometritis c)  orchitis        d)  hyperemesis gravidum


98.  The largest salivary gland is the

     a)  sublingual            b)  parotid                    c)  submandibular         d)  parietal


99.  A protozoan that causes vaginitis is

     a)  Candida albicans                                    b)  Treponema

     c)  Escherichia coli                           d)  Trichomonas vaginalis


100.  The bacteria that causes stomach ulcers is

      a)  herpes simplex   b)  Streptococcus mutans c)  Giardia lamblia d)  Helicobacter pylori




Extra credit:


1.  A normally pigmented man and woman marry.  They have two normal boys and one normal girl.  Another girl is albino.  The albino girl marries a man heterozygous for albinism. 

            a.  Draw a pedigree of this family. 

            b.  Write the genotype of each person beside his/her symbol.

            c.  What are the chances that the albino girl has an albino child?










2.  A food has  3 gm fat, 4 gm protein, and 15 gm carbohydrate.

            a.  Calculate the total calories.

            b.  What percent of these calories come from fat?


Do NOT use a calculator.  Give approximate answers.