NAS 162  Final                                                            Name ________________________

Vander Maten

Questions 1-50 are worth two points each.  Questions 51-100 are worth one point each.

 

1.  Neurons that carry messages  from the peripheral areas to the brain are

     a)  motor                 b)  Schwann                 c)  sensory                    d)  interneurons

 

2.  During the impulse across a neuron

     a)  sodium moves into the cell                       b)  sodium moves out of the cell

     c)  calcium moves into the cell                      d)  calcium moves out of the cell

 

3.  At the synapse, the impulse is passed

     a)  electrically          b)  chemically               c)  mechanically            d)  photochemically

 

4.  At the synapse, neurotransmitters move from the knobs of the ____________ to the receptor of the _____________ .

     a)  axon, axon          b) axon, dendrite          c)  dendrite, axon          d)  dendrite, dendrite

 

5.  All of these are ways for a drug or poison to act on nerves except

     a)  bind to receptor                                      b)  stop breakdown of neurotransmmitter

     c)  analog of neurotransmitter                       d)  destroy phospholipid bilayer

 

6.  Neuroglial cells are necessary for all of the following except

     a)  support                                                   b)  transmission of impulse

     c)  formation of myelin                                 d)  phagocytosis of debris

 

7.  When impulses jump from node to node, it is called

     a) the refractory period                                b)  a reflex arc

     c)  repolarization                                          d)  saltatory conduction

 

8.  Put these in order to describe transmission in a reflex:

     1.  motor neuron    2.  sensory neuron     3.  interneuron    4.  brain

     a)  4,2,1,3               b)  2,1,3,4                    c)  2,3,1                       d)  1,3,2

 

9.  Myelin sheath is made by

     a)  Schwann cells     b)  motor neurons         c)  sensory neurons       d)  interneurons

 

10.  The myelin sheath is destroyed by forming hard scars in

     a)  polio                   b)  Tay-Sachs               c)  multiple sclerosis      d)  Alzheimer’s

 

11.  Larynx, speech, swallowing, portions of the chest and abdoomen are all controlled by

     a)  facial (VII)          b)   trigeminal (V)         c)  trochlear (IV)          d)  vagus (X)

 

 

 

12.  Eye muscles are controlled by cranial nerves

     a)  III, V, VII          b)  III, IV, VI               c)  VII, IX, XI              d)  II, IV, VII

 

13.  The cerebellum, pons, and medulla all rise from the embryonic

     a)  midbrain b)  topbrain                  c)  hindbrain                 d)  forebrain

 

14.  The hypothalamus and pituitary rise from the

     a)  midbrain b)  topbrain                  c)  hindbrain                 d)  forebrain

 

15.  The weblike middle meninges is the

     a) arachnoid mater   b)  pia mater                 c)  subarachnoid mater d)  dura mater

 

16.  The cerebral hemispheres are connected by the

     a) thalamus              b)  pons                        c)  pituitary                   d)  corpus callosum

 

17.  Cerebrospinal fluid is made by the

     a) arachnoid mater  b)  pia mater                  c)  subarachnoid mater  d)  dura mater

 

18.  Posture and involuntary movement are controlled by the

     a)  pons                   b)  cerebrum                 c)  medulla                    d)  cerebellum

 

19.  Vital centers are controlled by the

     a)  midbrain b)  thalamus                  c)  medulla                    d)  cerebelum

 

20.  Sympathetic nerve impulses cause all but the following:

     a)  eyes dilate          b)  heart slows              c)  digestion slows        d)  breathing speeds

 

21.  Older people often have poor diets because

     a)  taste buds are lost                                   b)  rods and cones are lost

     c)  smell receptors are lost                           d)  hearing loss

 

22.  Free nerve endings are found in which somatic senses?

     a)  touch and pressure                                  b)  touch and temperature

     c)  temperature and pain                              d)  pressure and pain

 

23.  Conductive deafness can be caused by all but the following:

     a)  loud sounds        b)  hardened eardrum   c)  immovable ossicle  d)  excess earwax

 

24.  Inflammation of the cornea is called

     a)  conjunctivitis       b)  tinnitus                     c)  neuritis                     d)  keratitis

 

25.  Dim vision is called                       

     a)  diplopia              b)  presbyopia              c)  amblyopia                d)  myopia

 

 

26.  Most cases of bacterial meningitis are caused by

     a)   Streptococcus pneumoniae                    b)  Hemophilus influenzae

     c)   Neisseria meningitidis                             d)  Listeria monocytogenes

 

27.    Polio is caused by a

     a)  fungus                 b)  bacteria                   c)  protozoan                d)  virus

 

28.  African sleeping sickness is caused by the

     a)  protozoan Trypanosoma             b)  fungus Cryptococcus

     c)  encephalitis virus                         d)  bacteria Clostridium tetani

 

29.  Clostridium bacteria are particularly dangerous because they are

     a)  aerobic and make endospores                 b)  anaerobic and make endospores

     c)  aerobic and grow at 5oC             d)  anaerobic and grow at 5oC

 

30.  Tightly packed capillary cells which have a myelin sheath lead to the

     a)  blood brain barrier                                  b)  slow development of rabies

     c)  trauma during a spinal tap                        d)  spastic paralysis in tetanus

 

31.  Excessive eating is called

     a)  aphasia               b)  neuralgia                  c)  hirsutism                  d)  polyphagia

 

32.  The target organ of ACTH is the

     a)  kidney                b)  thyroid                    c)  uterus                      d)  adrenal

 

33.  An example of a gonadotropin is

     a)  prolactin b)  estrogen                  c)  FSH                        d)  oxytocin

 

34.  Too much growth hormone after puberty causes

     a)  dwarfism            b)  cretinism                  c)  acromegaly              d)  gigantism

 

35.  Hyperthyroidism causes all but the following:

     a)  restlessness         b)  cold sensitivity         c)  weight loss               d)  protruding eyes

 

36.  The parathyroid raises blood levels of

     a)  calcium               b)  insulin                      c)  sodium                    d)  iodine

 

37.  Electrolytes are regulated by

     a)  glucagon b)  aldosterone             c)  calcitonin                 d)  cortisol

 

38.  Which hormone tells the body to store glucose as starch?

     a)  aldosterone         b)  glucagon                  c)  thyroxine                 d)  insulin

 

39.  Milk release is controlled by

     a)  prolactin b)  oxytocin                  c)  LH                          d)  thyroxine

40.  Pain due to inflammation of nerves is called

     a)  analgesia b)  neuritis                    c)  neuralgia                  d)  analgesic

 

41.  Gene shuffling occurs during

     a)  meiosis I prophase                                  b)  mitosis I prophase

     b)  meiosis II prophase                                d)  mitosis II prophase

 

42.  Lipids accumulate in the brains of young children in

     a)  phenylketonuria  b) porphyria                  c)  Tay-Sachs disease   d)   cystic fibrosis

 

43.  The genes for blood type (IA, IB) are an example of

     a)  incomplete dominance                             b)  codominance

     c)  polygeny                                     d)  a sex-linked gene

 

44.  A person with Turner syndrome has a chromosome count of

     a)  44                      b)  45                           c)  46                           d)  47

 

45.  Genes that are sex linked are almost always found on

     a)  chromosome 21                          b)  chromosome Y

     c)  chromosome 15                          d)  chromosome X

 

46.  Freckles are dominant.  A woman homozygous for freckles marries a man without freckles.  What are the chances that their child has freckles?

     a)  0                        b)  ¼                            c)  ½                            d)  1

 

47.  A colorblind man marries a heterozygous woman.  What are the chances that their child is a carrier?

     a)  0                        b)  ¼                            c)  ½                            d)  ¾

 

48.  A man with blood type A marries a woman and has a child with blood type O.  Some years later the wife dies.  The man remarries a woman with O type blood.  What are the chances a new baby has type A blood?

     a)  0                        b)  ¼                            c)  ½                            d)  1

 

49.  A young woman’s father does not have hemophilia, but the father’s brother does have the disease.  The mother’s family has no hemophilia.  What would you tell the young woman?

     a)  You are not a carrier.                              b)  You are probably a carrier.

     c)  You are definitely a carrier.                     d)  You will develop hemophila later in life.

 

50.  An example of a one-gene, autosomal problem is

     a)  sickle cell anemia  b)  Klinefelter c)  Down syndrome      d) colorblindness

 

51.  Which of the following is not found in normal urine?

     a)  glucose               b)  urea                        c)  water                       d)  bacteria

52.  Alveoli cells are

     a)  cuboidal             b)  squamous                c)  columnar                 d)  pseudostratified

 

53.  Increased production of urine is called

     a)  anuria                 b)  enuresis                   c)  dysuria                    d)  diuresis

 

54.  Lack of ADH leads to a disease called

     a)  pyelonephritis     b)  diabetes mellitus      c)  diabetes insipidus     d)  cystitis

 

55.  Collapse of lung is called

     a)  athsma                b)  ateclectasis              c)  pneumonia               d)  emphysema

 

56.  Fusion of alveoli is called

     a)  athsma                b)  ateclectasis              c)  pneumonia               d)  emphysema

 

57.  Each alveolus is surrounded by

     a)  myelin                 b)  afferent arterioles     c)  efferent arterioles     d)  capillaries

 

58.  In which diseases are there calcified lesions in the lung?

     a)  lung stones          b)  pneumonia               c)  tuberculosis d)  gout

 

59.  Most bladder infections are caused by

     a)  E. coli                 b)  Streptococcus         c)  Staphylococcus       d)  Mycobacterium

 

60.  The movement of substances from kidney tubules to the capillaries is called

     a)  secretion b)  reabsorption            c)  filtration                   d)  diffusion

 

61.  Glucose in the glomerulus next passes to the

     a)  efferent arteriole  b)  renal vein                c)  proximal con.t.         d)  B’s capsule

 

62.  A red blood cell in the glomerulus next passes to the

     a)  efferent arteriole   b)  renal vein   c)  proximal con. t.        d)  B’s capsule

 

63.  Most molecules of urea pass from the proximal convoluted tubule to the

     a)  peritubular capillaries                              b)  distal convoluted tubule

     c)  Henle’s loop                                           d)  renal vein

 

64.  Most molecules of glucose pass from the proximal convoluted tubule to the

     a)  peritubular capillaries                              b)  distal convoluted tubule

     c)  Henle’s loop                                           d)  renal vein

 

65.  Increased CO2 in the blood leads to 

     a)  uremia                                                    b)  hematuria

     c)  higher pH                                               d)  lower pH

 

66.  Carbon monoxide occupies the hemoglobin site for

     a)  oxygen               b)  carbon dioxide        c)  iron                         d)  urea

 

67.  Inflammation of nasal cavity linings is called

     a)  cystitis                b)  rhinitis                     c)  glossitis                    d)  pharyngitis

 

68.  Inflammation and accumulation of fluid in the lungs is called

     a)  enteritis               b)  cystic fibrosis           c)  emphysema             d)  pneumonia

 

69.  Excess sodium in the blood is

     a)  hyperkalemia      b)  hypokalemia            c)  hypernatremia          d) hyponatremia

 

70.  Blood from the aorta goes directly to the

     a)  facial                  b)  common carotid      c)  external carotid        d)  brachiocephalic

 

71.  Long sticky fibers in the blood come from

     a)  platelets              b)  fibrinogen                c)  albumin                    d)  white blood cells

 

72.  The condition of having bacteria in the blood is

     a)  septicemia          b)  thalassemia              c)  leukopenia               d)  polycythemia

 

73.  Bilirubin and biliverdin in the blood lead to

     a)  anemia                b)  jaundice                  c)  hyperchromia           d)  pancytopenia

 

74.  Enlargement of lymph nodes is called

     a)  lymphadenotomy  b)  lymphadenectomy  c)  lymphadenopathy  d)  lymphsarcoma

 

75.  Too few white blood cells is called

     a)  leukopenia          b)  polycythemia           c)  neutrophilia  d)  leukocytosis

 

76.  All of the following are noncellular components of the blood except

     a)  proteins              b)  gases                       c)  red blood cells         d)  electrolytes

 

77.  Blood in the heart passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle through the

     a)  aortic semilunar        b)  bicuspid             c)  tricuspid      d)  pulmonary semilunar

 

78.  Blood in the heart passes from the right ventricle to the

     a)  pulmonary artery  b)  pulmonary vein   c)  superior vena cave  d)  aorta

 

79.  The muscle part of the heart is the

     a)  myocardium        b)  endocardium  c)  visceral pericardium d)  parietal pericardium

 

80.  Inflammation of a vein is called

     a)  phlebitis              b)  varicose vein           c)  venography              d)  phlebotomy

 

81.  The condition of hardened, less elastic arteries is called     

      a)  angiospasm        b)  atherosclerosis         c)  aneurysm                 d)  arteriosclerosis

 

82.  Heart beat is initiated by the

     a)  A-V node           b)  A-V bundle c)  S-A node                d)  S-A bundle

 

83.  The white blood cell that contains histamine is the

     a)  neutrophil           b)  eosinophil                c)  basophil                   d)  lymphocyte

 

84.  A Y-shaped protein made in response to a foreign substance that can react with that foreign substance is

     a)  an antigen           b)  an antigen-presenting cell  c)  a phagocyte  d)  an antibody

 

85.  Vaccination is a form of

     a)  active natural immunity                            b)  passive natural immunity

     c)  active artificial immunity               d)  passive artificial immunity

 

86.  Antibodies are made by ______ cells in the  ______ lymphocyte family.

     a)  plasma, B           b)  plasma, T                c)  helper, B                 d)  helper, T

 

87.  Inflammation of colon pouches is

     a)  diverticulitis         b)  enteritis                   c)  dysentery                 d)  cholecystitis

 

88.  All of the following are accessory digestive glands except

     a)  liver                    b)  gall bladder             c)  salivary glands         d)  pancreas

 

89.  Indigestion is called

     a)  aphagia               b)  pholyphagia c)  anorexia                  d)  dyspepsia

 

90.  The site of mechanical breakdown and mixing with acid is the

     a)  stomach              b)  mouth                      c)  small intestine           d)  large intestine

 

91.  Villi are found in the

     a)  stomach              b)  esophagus               c)  small intestine           d)  large intestine

 

92.  The condition of stones in the gall bladder is called

     a)  gastrectomy        b)  cholelithiasis            c)  cachexia                  d)  cholecystitis

 

93.  Interstitial cells make

     a)  FSH                   b)  estrogen                  c)  testosterone d)  ICSH

 

94.  The hormone that maintains the lining of the uterus is

     a)   estrogen            b)  progesterone           c)  testosterone d)  HCG

 

 

95.  LH is released on about day _____ and causes _______.

     a)  14, menstruation  b)  28, menstruation     c)  14, ovulation           d)  14, ovulation

 

96.  Oophhorectomy is removal of the

     a)  uterus                 b)  ovary                      c)  Fallopian tube          d)  vagina

 

97.  The condition of having uterine tissue outside the uterus is called

     a)  endometriosis     b)  endometritis c)  orchitis        d)  hyperemesis gravidum

 

98.  The largest salivary gland is the

     a)  sublingual            b)  parotid                    c)  submandibular         d)  parietal

 

99.  A protozoan that causes vaginitis is

     a)  Candida albicans                                    b)  Treponema

     c)  Escherichia coli                           d)  Trichomonas vaginalis

 

100.  The bacteria that causes stomach ulcers is

      a)  herpes simplex   b)  Streptococcus mutans c)  Giardia lamblia d)  Helicobacter pylori

 

 

 

Extra credit:

 

1.  A normally pigmented man and woman marry.  They have two normal boys and one normal girl.  Another girl is albino.  The albino girl marries a man heterozygous for albinism. 

            a.  Draw a pedigree of this family. 

            b.  Write the genotype of each person beside his/her symbol.

            c.  What are the chances that the albino girl has an albino child?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.  A food has  3 gm fat, 4 gm protein, and 15 gm carbohydrate.

            a.  Calculate the total calories.

            b.  What percent of these calories come from fat?

 

Do NOT use a calculator.  Give approximate answers.