|1.||Define and explain the difference between a population,
community, and ecosystem, and biosphere.
|2.||Know the four parts of the ecosystem.
|3.||Discuss the importance and concept of the flow of energy through an
ecosystem as represented by food chains (webs), different trophic levels,
producers (autotrophs), consumers (primary, secondary, etc., herbivores,
carnivores, omnivores), decomposers. Relate this to pyramids of energy,
biomass, or numbers. Explain why the flow is one way (Two Laws
of Thermodynamics and the effect of entropy) and be able to give examples
|4.||Discuss the concept and importance of the cycling of elements into
and out of the ecosystem.
|5.||Explain the types of limiting factors that control where species live,
and how large the population will be. Explain the law of tolerance,
and the terms euryoecious, and stenoecious.
|6.||Define and explain the different types of species interactions.
Intraspecific relationships: territories, groups, dominance hierarchies. Know basic different forms of communication. Interspecific relationships: competition, predation (plant defense mechanisms, animal defense mechanisms – crypsis, aposemasis, Batesian and Mullerian mimicry), amensalism (allopathy), symbiosis: commensalism, mutualism, parasitism. Facultative vs. obligatory.
|7.||Define the terms niche and habitat and relate this to Gause’s
Rule (law): the Competitive Exclusion Principle. Relate
this to the difference between sympatric and allopatric species.
Explain the results of interspecific competition.
|8.||Population Ecology: define growth rate, density, age distribution,
migration patterns, birth rate, death rate, survivorship (mortality) and
the factors controlling them. Explain, recognize the Type I, II,
and III survivorship curves, and give examples of representative organisms.
Explain the difference between the biotic potential (exponential growth
rate) and the carrying capacity. Explain the different types of population
checks that prevent the attainment of the biotic potential. Population
checks: density independent and density dependent population checks - density
triggered or conditioned, scramble vs. contest competition. Explain
the difference between opportunistic (r selected) and equilibrium (K selected)
life history strategies.
|9.||Define and explain what a succession is and why it occurs. Know
what determines the pattern of a succession. Discuss the changes
that occur in an ecosystem as it matures and moves toward the climax type.
Terms: primary succession, secondary succession, sere, seral stage, climax
community, pioneer community. Know examples of successions.
|10.||Define the term biome. Explain what determines where the different
biomes exist. List the major biomes of the world and know their major
distinguishing factors – tundra, taiga (boreal forest), temperate deciduous
forest, temperate grasslands, savanna, chaparral, tropical rain forest,
fresh water biomes, marine biomes.
|11.||Define, name and distinguish between the biogeographical regions of
the world - the Australian, Oriental, Palearctic, Ethiopian,
Neotropical, and Nearctic realms.