The first component
of a point in the Cartesian Coordinate Plane.
For example, the abscissa of the point P(2, 1) is 2.
value of a real number x, denoted |x|, is the distance from x to
0 (on a real number line). The absolute value of any number
can not be negative. For example .
equations with absolute
value use the equivalent definition
An angle between
0o and 90o
addition of two or more expressions. For example, .
To add fractions,
you have to give them a common denominator and then add their numerators,
Any of a sequence
of numbers that are to be added. For example in 3 + 4,
the addends are 3, and 4.
operation performed on two or more expressions to give a result
which is their sum. For example, polynomials are added by combining
Is the number
added to any given number x will still get you x.
In symbols, x + 0 = x = 0 + x, where 0 is the additive identity.
inverse of an element x is the opposite of x, e.g.,
the element that added to x give 0; symbolically -x
. For example .
The branch of
elementary mathematics that generalizes arithmetic by using letters
to denote arbitrary numbers. The name algebra came from the Arabic
al-jabr w'al-muqabala meaning "restoration and reduction",
which first occurred in the works of al-Khwarizmi (c780-850
Any finite combination
of numbers, letters and arithmetic operations, constructed in consonance
with the rules of formation.
procedure for solving a problem in a finite number of steps. For
example, the method to find the least common multiple of two numbers.
The name derived from the Arab mathematician al-Khwarizmi.
of (a limited region on) a surface. For example: The area
of a triangle with base 4 cm and height 5 cm is .
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The branch of
mathematics concerned with numerical calculations, such as addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division and the extraction of roots.
property of a binary operation that the result does not depends
on how the elements are grouped. The associative law for addition
is a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c and for multiplication is
a(bc)=(ab)c. Subtraction and division are not associative,
for example 7-(5-2)=4 whereas (7-5)-2=0.
Average is the
mean value of a group of numbers. For example: The average
of 1, 4, 7, and 8 is 5, since .
In a Cartesian
Coordinate System, either of the lines used to located a point in
terms of its perpendicular distance from them. The number of
axes is called the dimension of the space. For example, there
are the x-axis and the y-axis in the Cartesian coordinate
plane, which has a dimension two.