Course Description

Applies scientific principles and techniques to the preparation of food, including carbohydrates, such as fruits, vegetables, sugars and starches; fats, including animal and vegetable, as well as natural and manufactured; and proteins, such as milk, cheese, eggs, legumes, fish and shellfish. Lecture 3 hours. Laboratory 3 hours. Total 6 hours per week.

General Course Purpose

This course provides the student who is preparing for a career in the hospitality industry with basic scientific principles of food preparation, with emphasis on quality control.



Course Obejectives

Upon completion of this course, the student should be able to:

    1. critique and analyze food products and recipes on the basis of food preparation principles
    2. identify the characteristics of high quality food products based on the factors that affect the physical, chemical and biological reactions of carbohydrates, fats, and protein
    3. employ basic equipment in small quantity food preparation
    4. demonstrate the safe use and care of equipment used in food preparation
    5. know food preparation terminology and demonstrate techniques employed in small quantity food preparation
    6. relate the importance of professional appearance and behavior to sanitation and safety in the laboratory
    7. know basic information about the nutritive value of carbohydrates, fats, and protein
    8. evaluate products prepared in the laboratory by comparing with established standards
    9. gain experience of applying principles of measurement of ingredients
    10. identify and use various kinds of food thermometers
    11. know the graduation scale on each type of thermometer
    12. analyze the function of water and heat in food preparation: (solvent, dispersing agent, hydration, medium for heat transference, ionization)
    13. describe physical states (solid, liquid, gas) of water
    14. evaluate the factors that determine the preparation of high quality vegetables
    15. memorize the names of vegetable pigments
    16. recognize the nutritional importance of vegetables in the diet
    17. study the relationship between variety characteristics and quality characteristics in fruits and vegetables
    18. study the relationship between variety characteristics and quality characteristics in fruits and vegetables
    19. test color, flavor, textural changes in vegetables caused by acids, alkalis, minerals, enzymes, and heat
    20. determine the effect of method and time of cooking on vegetable color, flavor, and structure
    21. prepare and examine the effects on vegetables using different cooking methods, i.e., baking, broiling, sautéing, stir-frying, soufflés, and casseroles
    22. evaluate the factors that determine the preparation of high quality fruits
    23. study the conditions that affect enzymatic browning
    24. study the effect of breakdown of compounds and hemicellulose on cell structure
    25. explain the effect of osmosis on cell structure
    26. prepare pectin gels
    27. know the relationship between pectin, protopectin, and pectic acid compounds in gel formation
    28. taste and name different types of fruits; tropical/sub-tropical
    29. illustrate methods of starch granule separation used in gelatinization of the starch
    30. emphasize the necessity for separation of starch granules for even hydration and gelatinization
    31. study quality characteristics of selected starch thickened food products
    32. demonstrate the increase in viscosity in starch thickened products
    33. illustrate acceptable methods for the preparation of white sauces
    34. show the relative degrees of viscosity of white sauces prepared with varying ratios of flour to milk
    35. discuss the use of these sauces in food preparation
    36. demonstrate methods of cookery which retain the nutrients added to enriched rice and pasta products
    37. demonstrate methods of cereal cookery
    38. learn principles of salad dressing formation based on emulsion principles
    39. define temporary and permanent emulsions
    40. classify salad dressing according to emulsion type
    41. learn the procedure of reforming broken emulsions for use in other recipes
    42. recognize common emulsifiers used in food preparation
    43. differentiate between a salad dressing and mayonnaise based on standards of identity
    44. learn the role of salads in menus and principles of salad preparation
    45. define appetizer, accompaniment, main course, and dessert salads
    46. prepare salad recipes and evaluate according to standard principles of salad preparation
    47. learn the name and distinguishing quality characteristics of green used in salad preparation: iceberg, leaf, endive, romaine, etc
    48. study the appropriate type of dressing for main salad classifications
    49. discuss and illustrate marinades and salad dressings
    50. acquaint students with the properties of fats and oils
    51. define smoke point and acrolein
    52. learn appropriate deep fat frying temperatures for different foods - protein and carbohydrates
    53. study factors that affect the smoke point of fats, and rate of fat decomposition
    54. acquaint students with factors that influence fat absorption by deep fat fried foods
    55. illustrate principles involved in the preparation of gelatin products
    56. compare quality characteristics of a gelatin prepared from plain dry gelatin, and a commercial gelatin mix
    57. illustrate and discuss factors that affect the strength of a gelatin gel and gelatin foam
    58. identify through laboratory experiments and observation the characteristics of high quality protein products
    59. observe denaturation and coagulation of protein foods in the laboratory
    60. identify through laboratory experiments and observation the characteristics of high quality protein products
    61. acquaint the student with effect of acid on milk proteins
    62. identify the role of enzymes in coagulation of milk proteins
    63. appreciate the fact that stability of milk proteins may be both desirable and undesirable
    64. observe the effect of heat and temperature on milk proteins
    65. recognize the different types of milk products in the market place and their uses in a food service operation
    66. compare the flavor, cost, convenience and use in cooking of various types of milk
    67. understand the relationship between coagulation of milk proteins and the manufacture of natural cheese
    68. taste and evaluate natural cheeses and processed cheese products
    69. study factors inherent in the production of a natural cheese
    70. contrast and compare natural cheese and process cheese
    71. define the term "process" cheese and processed cheese food
    72. demonstrate the effect of emulsifiers on fat stability in cheese exposed to heat
    73. demonstrate the effect of heat on the protein and lactose in cheese
    74. observe the effect of length of aging and microorganisms used in aging on cheese flavor
    75. discuss the effect of high heat or prolonged heating on cheese proteins
    76. illustrate and discuss quality characteristics of shell eggs
    77. demonstrate selected methods for cooking eggs
    78. describe selected factors that affect the coagulation of egg proteins
    79. acquaint the students with differences between stirred and baked custards
    80. determine the effect of storage on egg quality
    81. identify changes occurring in eggs as they deteriorate
    82. demonstrate methods of minimizing the likelihood of forming a ferrous sulfide ring in hard cooked eggs
    83. differentiate between the coagulation temperature of egg whites, egg yolks, and whole egg
    84. explain the procedures to use while preparing an egg white foam of optimum volume, texture, and stability
    85. identify the factors contributing to volume in egg white foams
    86. interpret the role of acid and/or sugar in the coagulation of egg white proteins
    87. prepare a soufflé
    88. diagram primal cuts on a beef carcass
    89. differentiate between primal cuts and secondary cuts on a beef carcass
    90. prepare and compare dry and moist methods of meat cookery
    91. discuss and illustrate factors that determine the tenderness of a cut of meat before cooking
    92. discuss the effect of cooking on the quality characteristics of cooked meat
    93. identify differences in fat, bone, muscle, and texture of meat cuts from different animals
    94. acquaint the student with poultry classified as tender and discuss typical quality characteristics of tender birds
    95. review the factors that cause a cut of meat to be considered less tender
    96. illustrate moist heat methods of cooking less tender cuts of meat
    97. demonstrate that collagen will hydrolyze in the presence of heat and moisture
    98. discuss the relative effectiveness of powdered enzyme, fresh enzyme and acid marinades in tenderizing meat
    99. evaluate the palatability of meats prepared with mechanical tenderizing, enzyme, and acid tenderizing
    100. distinguish between inspection, quality grading, and yield grading of meat and meat products
    101. identify the quality grades in meat products/poultry and eggs
    102. distinguish between fin-fish and shellfish and memorize the market forms of each
    103. prepare different types of fin and shellfish utilizing moist and dry heat methods of preparation
    104. determine the effect of pH on the rehydration of dried legumesoutline optimal methods for softening legumes
    105. illustrate the use of legumes as meat substitutes
    106. acquaint students with the different variety of legumes
    107. observe the effect of adding calcium or acid to legumes
    108. acquaint the student with the biscuit, pastry and muffin method of combining ingredients for baked products
    109. observe changes that occur in muffin batter with extended stirring of ingredients
    110. observe the effect of kneading on biscuit dough
    111. demonstrate the effect of the buttermilk (acid) leavening system on quality of biscuits
    112. illustrate leavening action as water is converted to steam in baked products
    113. identify characteristics of the basic sauces
    114. prepare basic sauces
Revised 2/12

Top of Page                                             CES Homepage